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Pemilu Australia, Refleksinya bagi Indonesia

Mengamati kecenderungan politik di Australia, dengan menawarkan pertanyaan: "Siapa yang akan menang dan menjadi perdana menteri, Howard atau Beazley?'' rupanya cukup sulit mencari jawabannya. Hal itu karena fakta politik Australia; popularitas dan ketokohan tidak menjadi alasan utama sebuah partai bisa memenangi pemilu.

Ketiadaan budaya hubungan patron-klien yang begitu kuat dan mengakar, sebagaimana terjadi di Indonesia, menyebabkan partai harus berpijak pada program yang rasional, objektif, aplikabel, dan sesuai dengan tuntutan rakyatnya. Akibatnya, pertanyaan siapa yang akan melenggang ke kursi perdana menteri menjadi sangat kompetitif dan sulit diprediksi.

Namun mengamati beberapa fenomena politik dan jajak pendapat yang dipublikasikan akhir-akhir ini, paling tidak akan membantu penyediaan informasi untuk mengambil simpulan realistis.

Keandalan Program

Ciri khas negara maju adalah ketertataan sistem dan komitmen yang kuat sebagai dasar dan aturan permainan dalam berbangsa, bernegara, bahkan berpolitik. Kondisi semacam itu pun telah terjadi di Australia; komitmen rasionalitas berada jauh di atas komitmen emosional.

Komitmen rasional tampaknya hidup bukan saja dalam konstelasi politik, melainkan juga dalam kondisi sosial kemasyarakatan. Akibatnya, mayoritas masyarakat berpendapat tak ada sesuatu yang patut didukung sepanjang tidak sejalan dengan logika berpikir rasional komprehensif sesuai dengan kepentingan rakyat banyak.

Walaupun dalam perkembangan baru harus diakui kenyataan absennya dukungan rasionalitas pada partai, sebagaimana pendukung fanatik Partai Satu Bangsa (One Nation Party), semangat korektif dan saling mengingatkan masih tetap hidup.

Keyakinan bahwa tidak hanya ada satu alternatif dalam wacana sosial politik, memberikan wahana kondusif dalam mekanisme kontrol. Kalau mengamati program-program parpol, terutama yang ditawarkan dua partai besar (Partai Liberal pimpinan Howard dan Partai Buruh pimpinan Beazley), dapat disimpulkan, sebenarnya kedua program tersebut mempunyai pokok dan arah kebijakan yang sama.

Program baru yang ditawarkan Howard tentang pajak barang dan jasa (GST), juga tidak jauh berbeda dari program tax reforms with no GST yang ditawarkan Beazley. Materi kampanye yang dikembangkan partai pun hampir sama, walaupun pada derajat tertentu masih ada sedikit perbedaan.

Maka tidak mengherankan jika sejumlah media menyebutkan kampanye tahun ini cukup membosankan. Materi kampanye menyangkut beberapa hal pokok, seperti pengurangan pajak, pengangguran, kesejahteraan rakyat, dan pembangunan ekonomi negara memasuki abad ke-21.

Materi pengangguran rupanya menjadi prioritas primadona bagi semua partai. Terbukti, hampir semua liflet yang disebarkan ke masyarakat menggarisbawahi masalah itu.

Uniknya lagi, partai-partai saling jegal, saling manyalahkan, bahkan mengkritik keras partai yang lain. Contoh, Partai Satu Bangsa dengan berani mengatakan tingkat pengangguran sekarang mendekati 30 - 35% dari total angkatan kerja -versi Pemerintah, pengangguran berkisar 9-15%. Mereka adalah kaum muda yang terpinggirkan, dan tak mempunyai kesempatan karena didominasi imigran yang sekarang "menguasai'' perekonomian.

Sentimen-sentimen semacam itu tampaknya cukup efektif membakar emosi massa, baik di negara maju maupun negara berkembang (lihat: Teguh Yuwono, Suara Merdeka, 7 Agustus 1998).

Partai itu kemudian menuding dua partai yang selama ini bergantian berkuasa (Liberal dan Buruh) sebagai pihak yang paling bertangung jawab atas persoalan tersebut. Karena itu, jika menginginkan perubahan yang lebih baik, jangan mengulang kesalahan dengan memilih atau mendukung kedua partai yang selama ini bergantian berkuasa.

Serangan-serangan seperti itu juga dilakukan partai-partai lain dengan mengatakan, misalnya, program Liberal tidak menguntungkan rakyat dan membebani masyarakat miskin. Hal lain yang cukup menarik untuk diamati, selain adu program, adalah frekuensi pemimpin partai yang melakukan kontak langsung dengan masyarakat umum.

Hampir tiap hari media massa menyiarkan, bahkan memberikan jadwal kegiatan pemimpin partai (Howard dan Beazley, misalnya), sehingga mereka yang ingin berdiskusi dan berdialog dengan pemimpin partai sangat gampang melakukan akses.

Howard dan Beazley tidak sungkan-sungkan datang ke restoran kecil, kantor Pemerintah (baik di kota maupun di daerah pinggiran), dan perusahan-perusahan, yang menurutnya komunitasnya perlu diajak berdiskusi.

Mereka bisa berdiskusi dalam kapasitas duduk sama rendah berdiri sama tinggi. Keduanya tidak akan marah, walaupun dikritik, diprotes, atau dicaci sekalipun; selama berdasarkan fakta. Maka, tidak mengherankan jika kedua tokoh itu saling bersaing ketat dalam rangka mencapai kursi perdana menteri.

Jajak pendapat yang dilakukan ACNielsen terhadap 2.077 orang, sebagaimana ditulis The Sydney Morning Herald 11 September 1998, menyebutkan 49% approve, 42% disapprove, dan 9% uncommitted terhadap penampilan Howard. Sementara Beazley, tampaknya lebih populer karena 54% approve, 35% disapprove, dan 12% uncommitted. Jajak yang dilakukan Newspoll juga menunjukkan kepopuleran Beazley yang makin meningkat.

Responden menyatakan, 42% akan memilih partai koalisi (partai Howard dan Partai Nasional), 44% memilih Buruh (Beazley), 7% Satu Bangsa (Pauline Hanson), dan 7% selebihnya lain-lain. Dua partai yang paling disenangi saat ini adalah koalisi (47%) dan Buruh (53%).

Dengan kata lain, popularitas Buruh makin hari makin naik seiring dengan beberapa kebijakan Howard yang dipandang kontroversial dan kurang merakyat. Kebijakan GST dan penurunan subsidi pendidikan hampir 30%, menyebabkan menurunnya dukungan terhadap partai yang memerintah saat ini (Liberal).

Seandainya Howard tidak mampu memunculkan konsep program yang mendasar, dan gagal meminang hati nurani rakyat, mungkin akan sulit bertahan di kursi perdana meneteri. Popularitas Beazley yang makin meningkat juga merupakan ancaman serius bagi Howard, walaupun jajak pendapat itu tidak memberikan kepastian mutlak.

Dengan melihat tingkat partisipasi pemilih yang tinggi (90% lebih memilih karena pemilu di Australia merupakan kewajiban), kita akan melihat bagaimana kedua calon perdana menteri mempertaruhkan kredibilitas dan performance.

Mekanisme Kontrol

Belajar dari pengalaman negara lain merupakan usaha positif dan efektif. Indonesia bisa belajar dari Yugoslavia dan Uni Soviet, sehingga tidak terjebak pada separatisme daerah yang berlebihan, yang terjadi di kedua negara itu.

Demikian juga, bisa belajar dari Australia, khususnya soal pemilu, dengan harapan dapat memetik pelajaran berguna demi kemajuan bangsa dan negara. Pelajaran pertama yang bisa dipetik dari pemilu Australia adalah mekanisme kontrol yang cukup efektif dari partai politik.

Pemerintah (mereka yang menang dalam pemilu), tidak bisa berdiri sendiri dan membuat kebijakan sekehendak hatinya. Itu karena mereka dikontrol partai lain, serta kredibilitasnya diuji dalam pemilu. Dengan demikian, pemilu menjadi wahana yang benar-benar efektif untuk menguji kepemimpinan pemerintah dan partai.

Sistem mekanisme kontrol semacam itu menyebabkan pembuat keputusan harus benar-benar rasional dan memperhatikan kepentingan rakyat, karena mereka diawasi pihak lain di luar sistem kekuasaan pemerintahan.

Artinya, jika pemerintah tidak becus mengalami urusan publik, harus lengser dan diganti partai lain. Partai benar-benar merupakan tulang punggung pemerintahan, bukan sebaliknya.

Pelajaran kedua yang bisa dipetik adalah terbukanya bermacam-macam konsep dan tafsiran terhadap kebijakan publik. Kebijakan perpajakan, misalnya. Semua partai mempunyai konsep dan operasionalisasi yang jelas dan siap beradu program lewat berbagai media, baik elektronik maupun cetak, ataupun diskusi ilmiah.

Itu artinya, kebijakan partai sudah sangat operasional, sehingga begitu terpilih langsung bisa diaplikasikan. Tidak kemudian sekadar slogan, seperti "berantas korupsi, nepotisme, kolusi, kemiskinan, diskriminasi'' yang hanya sebatas pemanis bibir.

Dengan kata lain, setiap partai politik siap memerintah dan penuh dengan konsep dan kebijakan operasionalisasi di lapangan. Partai menawarkan rencana kebijakan yang berbeda-beda, dan rakyat bebas menyimpulkan mana yang menguntungkan serta sesuai bagi mereka, sehingga mereka mendukung atau memilih. Itu merupakan pelajaran penting yang harus dicamkan semua partai di Indonesia, yang sekarang sudah berjumlah puluhan.

Pelajaran ketiga adalah faktor kedekatan pemimpin dan rakyat. Rasa tidak malu turun ke bawah, seperti yang dilakukan Howard dan Beazley mencerminkan sifat demokrat sejati yang tak pernah berpikir "Saya lebih tahu daripada kamu. Saya lebih berkuasa daripada kamu. Saya lebih berpangkat daripada kamu'', dan seterusnya.

Mereka mau saja turun ke la pangan, seperti ke restoran, daerah-daerah pinggiran, dan kampus, dalam rangka menjalin kedekatan dengan pemilihnya. Mereka sebagai demokrat, tidak pernah berpikir "Saya lebih tahu ketimbang kamu. Saya tahu yang kau butuhkan'', dan lain-lain.

Jika jadi pemimpin atau ingin menjadi pemimpin, harus berani dan mau mendisiplinkan diri untuk bertanya pada rakyatnya. Artinya, dengarkan apa yang mereka kehendaki dan harapkan, serta jangan diumbar apa yang Anda (pemimpin) kehendaki saja.

To listen, to feel, to analysis and to implement (mendengar, merasakan, menganalisis, dan mengimplementasikan), merupakan gagasan positif yang tidak saja berlaku bagi para pemimpin nasional, melainkan juga pemimpin daerah seperti gubernur, bupati, wali kota, camat, dan lurah/kepala desa. Konsultasi publik (public consultations) tampaknya perlu dan harus diefektifkan.

Pelajaran keempat adalah komitmen terhadap the rule of the game yang cukup tinggi. Aturan main menjadi alat kontrol dan sistem efektif yang ditaati peserta pemilu.

Para peserta pemilu Australia memahami dengan benar bagaimana pemilu harus dilakukan secara fair. Walaupun dalam pelaksanaannya sering terjadi celah, celah itu tidak diperlebar dengan mengingkari aturan main.

Komitmen pada aturan main harus dilaksanakan secara efektif, walaupun tidak ada pihak lain yang melihatnya (self control).

Pelajaran kelima adalah ketidakterpakuan berlebihan pada seorang figur. Harus diakui, Howard dan Beazley cukup mampu merebut simpati rakyat. Namun bukan berarti keduanya segala-galanya.

Hal itu karena kerja mereka adalah kolektif dan tidak sangat tergantung pada kepemimpinan paternalistik. Mereka populer karena kebetulan keduanya ketua partai dan didukung masyarakat. Ketergantungan pada pemimpin yang berlebihan akan menyebabkan sistem rusak dan rentan jatuh.

Penguasa Tunggal

Bukti-bukti kejatuhan Marcos dan Soeharto merupakan contoh konkret rentannya kepemimpinan yang bermuara pada penguasa tunggal. Walaupun disadari saat ini masih sulit untuk menghilangkan model kepemimpinan paternalistik, harus ada usaha-usaha pembentukan sistem demokratik yang mengarah pada mekanisme kerja yang fungsional dan tangguh.

Walaupun Clinton sudah "habis'' karena skandal seksnya, pemerintahan AS tetap tidak jatuh atau lahir krisis berkepanjangan sebagaimana negara-negara Asia. Hal itu karena sistemnya berjalan efektif, dan orang per orang taat pada sistem itu.

Walaupun diakui orang tertarik pada Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) karena Amien Rais, pada Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) karena Matori Abdul Djalil dan Gus Dur, dan pada PDI Perjuangan karena Megawati Soekarnoputri, dan sosok-sosok lain, secara perlahan-lahan mereka harus menanamkan bagaimana menyusun sebuah kekuatan politik yang berakar pada sistem dan tata nilai yang demokratis.

Dengan penanaman semacam itu, diharapkan masa depan Indonesia tidak lagi bergantung pada keberadaan sosok perorangan (sebagaimana Orde Baru), tetapi lebih didasarkan pada mekanisme sistem yang kondusif, kukuh, dan mengakar pada kekuatan rakyat.

Belajar dari pengalaman bangsa lain diharapkan akan menghasilkan wawasan dan implementasi pelaksanaan kebijakan politik, kebijakan pemerintahan, dan kebijakan sosial ekonomi lain yang benar-benar solid, fungsional, dan efektif, sebagaimana harapan dan cita-cita masyarakat. Semoga bermanfaat.

Terbit pada Koran Sriwijaya Post 2 Oktober 1998

-Teguh Yuwono, dosen Ilmu Pemerintahan FISIP Undip Semarang, peserta Program Pascasarjana Public Policy, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

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